Spain’s cities, unlike Britain’s, are typically dominated by a mid-rise urban form. This makes active travel and public transport more effective, and promotes the economic benefits of agglomeration.
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City centre footfall rose in Swansea while the city council implemented its free bus policy, but there wasn’t much change in city centre spending.
The Levelling Up White Paper aims to have a globally competitive city in “every area” by 2030. International comparisons suggest that this is a very ambitious target.
There are valid concerns about the economic impact of charging cars for access to city centres. Data on footfall and spend suggest that Birmingham’s new Clean Air Zone had no negative long-term effect on the city centre’s economy.
The indicators and datasets in the white paper show the challenges of tracking levelling up in near real time, but it is ambiguous about the how to measure the progress across different places
The most recent data suggests that a post-furlough unemployment surge may have been avoided and several cities in the North and Midlands are leading the recovery. However, this is far from achieving levelling up.
A Workplace Parking Levy would simultaneously help Bristol face some of its major challenges: reaching net zero, improving air quality and making public transport better
How public transport reforms in Portugal could be replicated in Greater Manchester and other UK city regions.
Poor access to public transport effectively shrinks the size of our biggest cities. But trams and tubes alone won’t solve the problem
There were still 1.1 million people on furlough in September, and almost one third of them were in London, Birmingham and Manchester.