Appendix 1: Cities in the analysis grouped by size

The tables below show the cities in each size category used for this report, and their average population.

Table 2: Cities under analysis by population

Groups British cities (avg. population) European Cities (avg. population)
Less than 750,000 Bristol, Liverpool and Nottingham Stuttgart, Frankfurt am Main, Dortmund, Toulouse, Leipzig, Düsseldorf, Essen, Bremen, Nantes, Bordeaux, Dresden, Nice, Zaragoza, Palermo, Seville and Genoa
Between 750,000 and one million Sheffield, Leeds and Newcastle Lille, Marseille, Valencia, Rotterdam, Bilbao and Turin
Above one million Glasgow, Manchester and Birmingham Berlin, Brussels, Stockholm, Munich, Copenhagen, Barcelona, Hamburg, Milan, Rome, Lyon, Dublin, Amsterdam, Madrid, Cologne and Napoli
Mega cities (nine million-plus) London Paris

Source: ONS; Eurostat.

Table 3: Based on average population levels, the defined groups are comparable

Groups Less than 750,000 Between 750,000 and one million More than one million London and Paris
UK 689,350 831,775 2,014,618 10,151,260
European cities 615,891 876,374 2,045,383 9,845,879

Source: ONS; Eurostat.

Appendix 2: Cities’ specific features – accessibility, effective size and productivity

Figure 15: Unlike in Western European cities, the entire population of most British cities are not within a 45-minute public transport range

Source: TravelTime; ONS; Eurostat; Centre for Cities’ calculations. Accessibility above 100 per cent does not necessarily mean that all residents are included as the transport network may accommodate people from different towns and cities.

Appendix 3: Visual demonstration of the estimated impact on public transport accessibility

The Figure below is a visual representation of what the simple modelling in this would mean for the correlation between cities’ size and productivity. The intention is not to provide a  prediction – in reality, increasing the effective size may lead to greater improvements in productivity, placing cities nearer to the regression line.

Figure 16: Improving transport accessibility increases the effective size of Britain’s big cities, moving them along the trendline, but does not entirely close the gap with big European cities

Source: TravelTime; ONS; Eurostat; Centre for Cities’ calculations.