On cities and devolution the manifestos put forward different visions for how each party would transfer some policy functions and flexibilities down from Whitehall, from an incremental and deal-based approach focused on larger cities (Conservatives) to a more universal devolution of more modest powers (Labour). While there are few commitments to improve the fiscal and financial tools that cities have at their disposal to support growth, it is encouraging to see more of a focus on place-based investment and urban growth in some of the manifestos.

Unfortunately, this place-based approach does not extend to the other policy areas that could have the biggest impact on boosting economic growth in UK cities, such as housing, transport and skills. While there are important differences between the approaches that each of the parties are advocating in these areas, there remains a lack of emphasis on ensuring policies can be tailored to the specific challenges different places face.