In the memory of Professor Sir Peter Hall (1932-2014), who dedicated his life to understanding growth and change in cities, and whose intellect and enthusiasm continues to be an inspiration to us all.

The authors would like to thank former colleagues Dmitry Sivaev and Nada Nohrova for their contributions to the research, and Paul Hildreth for his support.

This work contains statistical data from ONS which is Crown Copyright. The use of the ONS statistical data in this work does not imply the endorsement of the ONS in relation to the interpretation or analysis of the statistical data. This work uses research datasets which may not exactly reproduce National Statistics aggregates.

All views expressed in this report are those of the Centre for Cities.

All mistakes are the authors’ own.