Lessons from UK and international cities
There are many different local and community level youth employment and education programmes around the world. These range from the local delivery of central government programmes, to programmes developed by cities and delivered with central Government backing, to programmes developed and delivered through private financing. This section looks at a range of both preventive and re-integration measures used in cities in the UK and internationally to draw out lessons for UK partners.
Given the scale and scarring effects of youth unemployment, policy makers must address the current youth unemployment crisis and work to re-integrate young people back into the labour market as economic recovery takes hold. At the same time it is vital that policy makers improve the efficacy of preventive measures to reduce youth unemployment in the future.
Lesson 1: Early intervention is crucial to the prevention of youth unemployment and disengagement over the longer term.
The likelihood of a young person becoming NEET is higher if they have poor GCSEs, even among affluent households – which means raising educational attainment should be a priority for cities.34 Generally the more educated are less likely to experience unemployment. Educational attainment has been found to be a stronger predictor of a young person leaving the NEET category after one year than socio-economic background. Individuals who become NEET often lack numeracy and literacy skills.35 The Harlem Children’s Zone and the London Challenge offer innovative examples of local partners collaborating to raise educational attainment among more disadvantaged groups.
Case study 2: New York, US – Harlem Children’s Zone (HCZ)
The Children’s Zone aims to break the poverty cycle in Harlem by getting children through education.36 The aim is to create a critical mass of people involved in the programme so that “children are surrounded by an enriching environment of college-oriented peers and supportive adults”. The presumption is that effective schools alone are insufficient to raise education attainment rates among children in poverty. The programme has expanded since its introduction in the 1970s and now serves over 10,000 children and 13,000 adults.
The programme’s services are structured to fit into a ‘pipeline’ that provides continuous support and reinforcement from 0 to 22 years old. Alongside the educational investments, community programmes include truancy prevention programmes; organising tenant associations, one-on-one counselling to families; foster care prevention programs; community centres; and an employment and technology centre that teaches job-related skills to teens and adults.
HCZ’s charter schools have high teacher to student ratios, longer days along with a broad range of extra-curricular activities, including programmes to discourage drug use and gang culture and counselling. Staff work with students to develop personal plans for further and higher education.
Researchers found that the programme had managed to completely close the racial educational attainment gap.37 Modest estimates suggest that attending a Promise Academy charter school is associated with a 4.8 to 7.5 percent increase in earnings, 1.65 to 2.25 percent decrease in the probability of committing a property or violent crime, and 7.5 to 11.25 decrease in the probability of having a health disability.
HCZ’s success has drawn national attention. During the 2008 Presidential campaign, Barack Obama announced plans to replicate the programme in 20 cities across the US. Yet a number of researchers have since questioned whether community investment has appreciable effects on student achievement in schools in the US. A 2010 study examined the differences between students attending the charter schools and those not, and then those with and without access to the community programmes. It concludes: “High quality schools are enough to significantly increase academic achievement among the poor. Community programs appear neither necessary nor sufficient”.37
While community investments may have positive impact, for cities seeking to improve educational attainment, these findings suggest it is important they focus on school performance first and foremost.
Case study 3: London, UK – The London Challenge
The London Challenge ran from 2003-2008 and aimed to break the link between deprivation and low educational standards. It initially ran in secondary schools, aiming to increase aspirations, improve teacher morale and teaching standards to improve exam results. From 2006 it expanded to include some primary schools. Central and local government and schools worked together to achieve the aims.
The programme was experimental and a wide range of new approaches were tried, including the appointment of Challenge advisors. These advisors were employed directly by the DfE and worked with schools to identify their weaknesses and develop and implement plans for improvement. The emphasis was on offering support to inspire existing teachers and to attract new staff to overcome London’s teacher shortage, rather than naming and shaming’ ‘failing’ schools.
There was also a strong emphasis on the use of data and collaboration between high performing and low performing schools. Schools were encouraged to compare themselves to each other and identify possible reasons for variations.
Other initiatives included improving/updating school equipment and the London Student Pledge, which aimed to ensure that all students experienced a wide range of extra-curricular activities.
When the programme began, the performance of London schools was below the UK average. By 2006 Ofsted reported that attainment had risen faster in London than anywhere else and that a higher percentage of schools were judged “good” or “better” for overall effectiveness than in other regions. The London Challenge was also identified as a model that could be effective in other locations where school performance was a concern.39
More recent research on London schools suggests that the improvements in London’s primary schools in the last 1990s and 2000s mostly explain the improvement in GCSE attainment in London.40 This may be related to the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies that were piloted in the capital, although more research is required to assess their importance. The research does find, however, that the London Challenge still has a positive effect after controlling for prior attainment and is likely to have helped sustain higher levels of achievement.
Lesson 2: Partnerships between educational providers and employers can help young people to develop the skills employers want and promote career planning and aspirations among young people.
Independent, high-quality advice and guidance is critical to ensuring young people make successful transitions into work. There is also a need to raise awareness of vocational alternatives to university and academic qualifications. Ofsted carried out a review of the delivery of careers advice and guidance in schools since 2012, finding that three quarters provided an ineffective service. The report also highlighted the limited nature of the advice available when it comes to alternatives to university education.41 Schools need to engage with local employers, and advisers need to have access to good quality local and national labour market intelligence.
There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that vocational courses and higher-quality work-based learning programmes at secondary school age can lead to better labour market outcomes, whether pupils go on to university or not.42 Evidence from evaluations of Careers Academies in the US suggest that integrating career awareness and development activities into school curricula can have significant, long-term impacts on individuals’ earnings potential.
Case study 4: Cities throughout the US – Career Academies
Career Academies in the US aim to prepare young people to make successful transitions into post secondary education or employment.42 The Academies have three core components: small learning communities, academic and technical curricula combined around a career theme, and employer partnerships to provide work-based learning opportunities.
An evaluation44 found the programme resulted in significant long-run wage impacts: young men who attended one of the Career Academies earned nearly $30,000 more over the eight year period. While the Academies were found to have no impact on educational attainment, investment in career-related experiences were found to result in substantial and sustained improvements in labour market prospects. It is also one of only a few youth-focused interventions in the US that have been found to improve the labour market prospects of young men.
The researchers emphasise that it is difficult to attribute the impacts to a particular feature of Career Academies but preliminary findings suggests that “substantial increases in students’ exposure to career awareness and development activities were associated with more substantial labour market impacts”. Career awareness and development activities included: job shadowing, work-based learning activities, career fairs, guest speakers and career-related guidance. The study demonstrates that it is possible to accomplish “the goals of school-to-career and career-technical education without compromising academic goals”.
Concerns have also been raised about the overall number and quality of apprenticeships available. More emphasis is being placed on vocational qualifications and apprenticeships with a clearer route into the labour market for those not planning on going to university, also helping to reduce skills mismatch. Yet, the Government’s annual survey found that 20 per cent of apprentices were not receiving training either on-the-job or off-the-job, 5 per cent were not paid and 20 per cent received less than the National Minimum Wage.45 In addition, between 2011/12 and 2012/13 there was a fall in the number of under 19 year olds starting apprenticeships.46
The London Apprenticeship Campaign, launched in 2010, aimed to establish more apprenticeship frameworks outside the traditional apprenticeship sectors and in growth sectors which dominate the local economy. The campaign worked closely with private sector employers to boost the number of placements available in the capital. The model, however, has faced criticism for producing low quality apprenticeships and acting as a mechanism for incumbent employee training rather than one to ease the transition for young people from education to the workplace.47 Comparison with the German system, along with local consultation, identified a number of factors that could have led to more positive outcomes for young people:
- Subsidising travel for 16 to 18 year olds on the apprenticeship wage, as the cost of transport is a possible disincentive to completion;
- Improving the reputation of apprenticeships to prevent them from being seen as a last chance for poor school performers;
- Improving the quality of apprenticeships so they provide more opportunities to progress from an apprenticeship to further and higher education, university and middle management roles and higher.
- The experience of the partners in North Rhine-Westphalia is an example of how local partners can work together to offer vocational training to young people.
Case study 5: North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany – Local Training Pacts for Vocational Training
Local partners in NRW,48 including unions, employer umbrella organisations, chambers, ministries, the state employment office, and county and municipal representative organisations, agreed a ‘Training Consensus’ for vocational training in 2011. The aim was to offer a training contract to every school leaver with the necessary general skills looking for an apprenticeship.47
Partners work together to:
- Provide training in a recognised qualification for those who do not find an apprenticeship;
- Improve career guidance in schools;
- Provide internships for pupils;
- Offer competence assessments to school leavers;
- Offer the possibility of acquiring university entrance qualifications in vocational schools.
The aim of the ‘Training Consensus’ is to use existing programmes more effectively – there is no additional financing for the pact. A regional consultancy agency, financed by the state, advises and monitors the pact. It is viewed as a good way to involve unions and employer representatives, and to ensure strong employer representation.
Lesson 3: Strong partnership with employers means young people are more likely to develop the skills employers want and employers are more likely to recruit programme participants.
Local shortages for certain types of skilled labour can be overcome through collaboration with employers and training providers. The REVIT programme in Rotterdam provides an example where local partners have successfully engaged with local employers to provide opportunities for unqualified young people in response to replacement demand.
Case study 6: Rotterdam, Netherlands – REVIT (Dutch acronym for re-energize)
Rotterdam’s port provides jobs for approximately 90,000 people and due to growth and an ageing workforce demand for new personnel is rising. Employers foresaw a significant problem in recruiting young people equipped with the necessary skills to do the job in coming years. In response, the port in partnership with DAAD (the regional employers service desk) and the Shipping and Transport College, developed a training scheme in 2008.50
The training offers young people without any qualifications the opportunity to secure paid employment by completing an apprenticeship. Over 40 weeks, candidates work four days a week, and spend one day a week attending the Shipping and Transport College. Candidates receive an apprentice fee from the employer for the first 16 weeks (which is higher than social welfare payments), after which they are offered a contract for at least 12 months.
The companies involved pay for the necessary equipment and provide guidance on the work floor. The project is funded by the stakeholders involved, with 60 per cent provided by the City of Rotterdam, 20 per cent by employers and 20 per cent by the Shipping and Transport College.
On average, 75 per cent of participants successfully complete the course and of these successful candidates, 80 per cent proceed to train as all round operators. The project resulted in around 500 young people being employed in the Rotterdam port in 2010 and 2011.
Lesson 4: Targeted intervention can lead to better outcomes. And different approaches are required for those that are ‘disengaged youth’ vs ‘work ready’.
The most disengaged young people generally face many barriers to work and education, and, therefore, need holistic and intensive one-to-one support. Experts have suggested that the Government sets out different approaches for different unemployment groups. Young people who are ‘work ready’ are likely to be able to look for employment with little support and take-up employment immediately, whereas ‘disengaged youth’ are more likely to need intensive support that addresses a range of different barriers to employment. Targeted support for the most disengaged tends to be regarded as the most effective way to tackle high youth unemployment and inactivity. Targeted support often requires outreach work to engage with young people furthest away from the labour market. The experience in Antwerp with the Youth Competence Centres suggests that outreach and engagement is most effective when counsellors have excellent local knowledge and networks.
Case study 7: Antwerp, Belgium – Youth Competence Centres (YCC)
In 2004, Antwerp set up three Youth Competence Centres that focused on diminishing the negative consequences of dropping out of school. The Centres were open to all young people but focused on 16 to 25 year olds in a vulnerable socio-cultural or socio-economic situation.51
Outreach was an important part of the YCC success. The Centres trained counsellors and sent them out into local communities to meet young people not in employment, education or training. Counsellors aimed to build relationships with these young people and provided them with advice on applying for a job or course and helped them identify which courses matched their interests. These young people were also encouraged to visit the Centre itself for further advice.
Data from 2010 shows that of the 129 young people that received intensive coaching , 41 per cent found a job, 16 per cent started a training course and 26 per cent returned to education. In total, 83 per cent achieved either an employment or training outcome. However, of those who moved into employment, 70 per cent were on temporary work contracts.
The Flemish Employment Service noted the importance of hiring counsellors who themselves already had excellent local knowledge of disengaged youth hotspots and existing contacts with young people in order to be able to gain the trust and respect of the target group. Counsellors also need a thorough understanding of existing provision for young people, including employment programmes and the education system. These factors were found to explain differences in outcomes amongst the Centres and emphasise the importance of putting resource into counsellors’ training and coaching.
Lesson 5: Tailored, continuous support can re-engage young people and help ensure they complete their qualification or course, or stay in employment.
A number of evaluations, both national and local level, have discovered that even projects that have high success rates in moving young people into some form of activity often don’t move a large proportion into sustained activity.52 This may because jobs are offered on a temporary basis only or because, even if full-time jobs are found, young people with multiple barriers to work find it difficult to remain in employment. This suggests some young people need continued support even after finding work. This was an important feature of the types of intervention employed in the Harlem Children’s Zone (discussed earlier in this report) and as part of the BladeRunners programme in Vancouver.
Case study 8: Vancouver, Canada – BladeRunners
BladeRunners is an employment programme that helps 15-30 year olds with multiple barriers to employment find careers.53 The programme offers a training programme to prepare young people for job placements and 24 hour, 7 days a week support, as participants typically experienced problems outside working hours. The programme is funded primarily through provincial and federal government and agencies delivering the program have to obtain ‘matched’ funding.
BladeRunners began in Vancouver in 1994 in the construction industry and as a result of its success expanded to other areas in British Columbia and into other sectors, including customer service and multi-media production. Around 75 per cent of participants complete the training and gain employment.
Employer engagement is a key element of the programme. In order to find jobs for participants and establish links with firms, coordinators go out into the community and ‘sell’ the program to potential employers. Employers are not expected to enter into formal agreements beyond taking on a participant if they wish and are expected to treat them as any other employee.
The programme also devotes a lot of time to help participants overcome the barriers beyond skills/qualifications that are preventing them from finding and keeping a job, such as substance misuse, homelessness, transportation costs and legal issues. Coordinators all have strong knowledge of what support is available in their communities and refer participants to the appropriate resource. It provides breakfast and lunch, living allowances, travel tickets, tools, equipment and work gear to participants during training.
Support workers maintain contact through employment, which is cited as one of the significant factors contributing to the success of the programme. On the first day of work, a BladeRunners coordinator will bring the participant to the construction site and introduce him or her to the foreman, contractor or tradesperson, and to other BladeRunners. Over subsequent days, the coordinator will return to the site to ensure that all are satisfied with the placement. All those who start the programme can receive support up till they reach 31. As such, even if a participant comes back two years after receiving their initial training, BladeRunners will still provide them with job leads.
Flexible or innovative scheduling may be appropriate to help engage some individuals. Partners in North Rhine-Westphalia established the Third Way in Vocational Training Initiative offering young adults the opportunity to re-enter the education system and attend individually tailored vocational training programmes. Flexibility was an important component of ensuring young people stayed in employment.
Case study 9: NRW, Germany – Third Way in Vocational Training Initiative
A growing number of youths in NRW with no or poor school qualifications were failing to complete vocational training courses and acquire recognised qualifications. The Third Way in Vocational Training Initiative (TWVTI) began as a pilot in 2006 involving 800 youths, offering a more flexible vocational training scheme.
The scheme worked with local colleges to adapt their traditional vocational training courses into a series of flexible modules. Under the trial, all youths who withdraw from their training are able to re-enter the learning process within a period of up to five years and to acquire a recognised certificate for the competencies gained successfully up to that point.
The initiative has identified that it is necessary to work continuously in very small groups in order to achieve noticeable learning progress. Integration in higher performing groups within vocational colleges usually ends in failure after a short while.
Lesson 6: Interventions are more likely to be effective if a coherent package of measures is in place to address the multiple barriers to work that young people may face.
The complexity of the system can lead to confusion by young people and businesses about what support is available. The UK Commission’s (2010) report on the Employer Perspectives Survey found that awareness of schemes focused on young people was very low, with only 15 per cent of employers citing awareness of the Young Person’s Guarantee and just over 53 per cent citing an awareness of apprenticeships.
Effective programmes provide access to a variety of support services. A programme that “fails to consider the need for supportive services may have low completion rates and fail for that reason alone”. Interventions may, for example, include transport schemes such as in Nottingham, where the City Council co-funded 2,500 transport passes for post-16 learners to attend city colleges and training institutes. eXplore in East Riding noted that reduced cost transport schemes were a crucial element in enabling young people to take part in their programme.
Collaboration at the local level can create a more coherent package of measures for young people and help improve young people’s access to support. This requires good data sharing between agencies and a well-coordinated multi-agency response. Three separate central government departments have responsibility for young people – the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), the Department for Education (DfE) and the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) – resulting in numerous separate programmes and initiatives aimed to keep young people in school, move them back into education or training and assist them with finding employment. Initiatives are also ended and replaced with new initiatives frequently, for example the abolition of the Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) in England and introduction of bursaries to help pay for essential education-related costs.
One-stop-shops are an approach being used to overcome the variety of organisations offering advice. In an attempt to reduce the number of disengaged young people, Hertfordshire is combining various advice centres under one roof. Young people are able to obtain advice on employment, education, volunteering, finance, drugs, health and housing from one organisation. This approach has been linked to a fall in the number of young people in the areas becoming disengaged from the labour market.
Case study 10: Hertfordshire, UK – Youth Connexions
One stop shops have been established in Hertfordshire where local partners come together to deliver a wide range of services for young people. These include guidance on education, work, training and volunteering, advice on drugs, finance, health and housing.
All provision is planned against a single five stage offer:
- Tracking and contacting young people;
- Assessing their needs;
- Allocating a case worker and agreeing personalised action plans building a mix of personal, educational and employability skills;
- Referring onto training or support for work;
- Sustained participation with ongoing support and review with case worker.
Youth Connexions works with training providers and employers through the Herts Provider Network and Hertfordshire Chambers of Commerce to identify progression routes and secure work experience placements. The council is also working with providers to offer support to employers taking on apprentices from disadvantaged groups.
The approach has resulted in a range of positive outcomes. During recession, the number of disengaged young people has dropped from 1,368 in 2010 to 1,087 in 2012. Within one year to June 2012 the number of young people leaving care and becoming disengaged has fallen from 26 per cent to 17 per cent, young offenders from 26 per cent to 22 per cent, young people with learning disabilities from 11 per cent to 9 per cent, and young people from deprived areas from 9 per cent to 7.5 per cent.
Lesson 7: Intelligence and evaluation is crucial in effective design and delivery of programmes.
Evaluations have found that the most effective programmes generally have a good understanding of the local labour market.54 Labour market intelligence is often gathered through assessment of the local job market or by maintaining stable links with employers. Partners need national-level intelligence coupled with knowledge of local opportunities available. Effective design and delivery also requires understanding of the hiring practices of local employers. It is generally important to place young people in quality jobs with opportunities for progression and good wages, as job outcomes are more likely to be sustainable.
Tracking individuals is also an important part of ensuring services are targeting disengaged young people and monitoring the effectiveness of interventions. Local authorities have responsibility for tracking individuals. In 2013, the activity of an average of 4 per cent of 16 and 17 year olds was unknown, rising to 22 per cent in some authorities.55 Brighton and Hove use social media to track young people as part of their Youth Employability Service.
Case study 11: Brighton, UK – Youth Employability Service (YES)
In 2011, Brighton and Hove City Council established the Youth Employability Service (YES) to re-engage 16-18 year old NEETs.56 The service provides free information, advice and guidance on employment and training opportunities and access to benefit payments. It also offers assistance with CV writing, job searching, completing application forms and interview preparation and provides support to young people as they are settling into new roles. The service has a number of drop-in centres across the city and uses social media, such as Facebook and Youtube, to share information. The service providers have also developed an app so that users can access information via their mobile phones.
In a year and a half it has reduced the number of disengaged young people from 10 per cent to 6.6 per cent. The programme’s success has been attributed to several factors, including: strong links with training providers, employers, Jobcentre Plus57 and the National Apprenticeship Service; input on how to improve the service from young people via the Youth Employability Panel; engagement via social media; and the monthly mapping of local provision.
The service prioritises the tracking of all young people to keep the numbers of ‘unknowns’ low and offer disengaged young people an adviser to provide tailored support. Social media platforms are not only used to communicate with clients and promote the service but also to track young people. It has enabled the service to contact young people they would not normally be able to reach. In 2011/12 the situation of 12.8 per cent of young people was not known; in 2012/13 this had dropped to 4.8 per cent.58
The council plans to increase support to more vulnerable learners with agreements to work closely with YMCA Supported Housing, housing associations, stronger family services, and Family Nurse Partnership practitioners.59
The effectiveness of programmes is dependent on monitoring and robust evaluation. Evaluations of local programmes are scarce and where evaluations are available they are often limited, infrequently looking beyond the number of participants that move into employment, education or training when leaving the programme.60 There is typically little to no information collected on how many of these participants could have been expected to move into work, training or education without the programme, how long participants actually remain in work or if they successfully complete their education or training. As such it is difficult to determine the most effective approaches. The most effective programmes internationally collect outcome data to redesign and improve interventions.
Lesson 8: Greater flexibility at local level can deliver greater efficiencies and better outcomes for young people.
Reductions in ring-fencing and individual targets can lead to greater efficiencies and better outcomes, as demonstrated by the Total Place and Community Budget pilots. Since the early 1990s, there have been a number of initiatives to join up or pool budgets between local authorities and other public sector bodies.61 Total Place, introduced by the last Government in 2009, set out to map all local public expenditure and identify how services could be better aligned. The pilot in Worcestershire aimed specifically to reduce the number of NEETs in the area.
Case study 12: Worcestershire, UK – Total Place Pilot
The Worcestershire Total Place project aimed to reduce the number of young people (16 to 24 years old) NEET, which stood at 9 per cent in 2010.62 With at least 24 separate local organisations and agencies linked to the agenda, the first step was to establish contact and develop relationships between them to begin providing a more efficient and integrated service. It was estimated that the annual expenditure involved with tackling NEETs exceeded £8 million; with £400,000 spent on administration.63
The project team engaged with young people, local agencies, DfE and DWP to develop a new, more integrated approach. It found that young people were confused by the system of support offered to them and needed better information about what is on offer and why it is worth their while to engage. It also found that payment by outputs rather than outcomes had some negative results. For example, young people were being sent on courses/training at the same level they had previously completed, as it provided training providers with ongoing income.
The pilot proposed establishing a single commissioning process, sharing data between agencies (including DWP) and the introduction of longer term planning with young people when they first become NEET. It also encouraged local employers to raise aspirations through introducing mentoring and business learning schemes into schools and colleges.
It was estimated that having a single integrated service would reduce the numbers of NEET young people and lead to savings of around £2.5 million a year. This includes administrative cost savings, as well a fall in unemployment support costs.
Community Budgets were launched by the current Government in 2011 with a similar aim. The Budgets aimed to make better use of the totality of public spending in a particular area by breaking down silos formed around different policy and government functions to focus spending on people and areas. The idea was to take a whole systems approach rather than focus on discrete services. Initially it was suggested that local partners involved in the 14 neighbourhood pilots and four ‘Whole Place’ pilots would work together to use a ’single pot’ of funding. In practice the pilot areas developed business cases focusing on different interventions, initially piloted as part of the ‘Troubled Families’ programme but expanded to cover a diverse array of intended outcomes.64
Individuals involved in the projects stated that data sharing, particularly from central government, was an important part of the process – and that more data would need to be shared for better outcomes. Others stressed the importance of maintaining a ‘whole system approach’ to avoid new silos being created around target groups.65 An evaluation by the National Audit Office (NAO) stated that joint working between local people, the lead authority and central government was seen as “a successful and vital element of the pilot”.66 It also stated that the true scale of potential savings (estimated at £9.4 billion and £20.6 billion over five years) will only be realised if the plans are implemented, and robustly evaluated.
Case study 13: Tri-London boroughs, UK – Community Budget pilot
The three authorities67 focused their attention in the Community Budget pilot on issues where state expenditure and costs are highest. The aim was to deliver efficiencies, reduce duplication and drive down demand across the public sector through better joined up working between agencies.
As part of this, the partners aimed to improve school to work transitions by creating a simple and coherent vocational pathway. Partners planned to ensure young people had the information to make sound choices about learning and employment by incentivising schools to provide employability support (advice, training and work experience). Partners have a local commitment to pilot an Employability Programme in six Tri-borough schools, to be funded jointly by local authorities, DWP and local schools and co-designed with schools, colleges, businesses, and the Greater London Authority. The plan is to run a small two-year pilot programme in a small number of schools with a predicted cost of £320,000. The proposal also sets out plans to strengthen the link between vocational skills funding and sustainable employment by increasing the proportion of funding paid for employment results, and streamlining and simplifying help for young people disengaged from work and learning.
Partners have identified a target population of 4,700 young people who are out of work and 3,500 young people to be given additional employability support in secondary school. Their analysis suggests that the pilot in six schools would generate savings to public services of £1.5 to 2.5 million per annum and around £6 to10 million per annum if rolled out across all schools in the Tri-borough area.